The Cold Climate
These climates have an average temperature above 10 °C in their warmest months, and a coldest month average below −3 °C. These usually occur in the interiors of continents, or on their east coasts, north of 40° North latitude. In the Southern Hemisphere, this climate is extremely rare due to the smaller land masses in the middle latitudes and the almost complete absence of land south of 40° South latitude, existing only in some highland locations in New Zealand that have heavy winter snows.
Taiga Biome - Boreal Forest Climate ( Dfc)
This is a continental climate with long, very cold winters, and short, cool summers. This climate is found in the polar air mass region. Very cold air masses from the arctic often move in. The temperature range is larger than any other climate. Precipitation increases during summer months, although annual precipitation is still small.
Much of the boreal forest climate is considered humid. However, large areas in western Canada and Siberia receive very little precipitation and fall into the subhumid or semiarid climate type.
- Temperature Range: 41 °C (74 °F), lows; -25 °C (-14 °F), highs; 16 °C (60 °F).
- Average Annual Precipitation: 31 cm (12 in).
- Latitude Range: 50° - 70° N and S.
Global Position: central and western Alaska; Canada, from the Yukon Territory to Labrador; Eurasia, from northern Europe across all of Siberia to the Pacific Ocean.
Tundra Biome - Tundra Climate (E)
The tundra climate is found along arctic coastal areas. Polar and arctic air masses dominate the tundra climate. The winter season is long and severe. A short, mild season exists, but not a true summer season. Moderating ocean winds keep the temperatures from being as severe as interior regions.
- Temperature Range: -22 °C to 6 °C (-10 °F to 41 °F).
- Average Annual Precipitation: 20 cm (8 in).
- Latitude Range: 60° - 75° N.
Global Position: arctic zone of North America; Hudson Bay region; Greenland coast; northern Siberia bordering the Arctic Ocean.
Alpine Biome - Highland Climate (H)
Highland climates are cool to cold, found in mountains and high plateaus. Climates change rapidly on mountains, becoming colder the higher the altitude gets. The climate of a highland area is closely related to the climate of the surrounding biome. The highlands have the same seasons and wet and dry periods as the biome they are in.
Mountain climates are very important to midlatitude biomes. They work as water storage areas. Snow is kept back until spring and summer when it is released slowly as water through melting.
- Temperature Range: -18 °C to 10 °C (-2 °F to 50°F)
- Average Annual Precipitation: 23 cm (9 in.)
- Latitude Range: found all over the world
Global Position: Rocky Mountain Range in North America, the Andean mountain range in South America, the Alps in Europe, Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa, the Himalayans in Tibet, Mt. Fuji in Japan.